Here is my profession of faith, here,
the yearnings of my wretched breath to you
who constitute all things with your Word, God.
What I have discoursed upon before, I set forth again,
these written instructions and interpretations
for the masses of different nations.
I offer these prayers of intercession
in the thanksgiving prayer below.
I pray to your unchanging, almighty Spirit:
Send the dew of your sweetness upon my soul
to rule over the impulses of my senses.
Send the all-filling gifts of your merciful grace
and cultivate the reasoning fields hardened by my heart,
that they might bear the fruit of your spiritual seeds.
All gifts that flourish and grow with us, Teacher,
come from your all-encompassing wisdom.
You who laid hands on the apostles,
filled the prophets,
taught the teachers,
made the speechless speak,
and opened the ears of the deaf. Continue reading “The Creed of Saint Gregory of Narek”
Repent and be baptized every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for forgiveness of your sins; and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
–Acts of the Apostles 2:38
What does Justification mean?
In Catholic theology justification is a term that means the cleansing of sin in a person, and the communication by grace of “the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ (Romans 3:22) ” through Baptism. Catholics believe that mankind has inherited original sin through Adam. The original sin destroyed the righteousness originally attributed to our first parents and created the chasm of sin between God and man. Sin separates us from God and thus by justice causes death of the soul in hell. “For the wages of sin is death (Romans 6:23)”. The Council of Trent affirms that original sin creates a weakness in human nature and calls this weakness of will concupiscence. Concupiscence weakens the will of man toward evil and warps his nature towards selfish passions rather than the love of God. Human nature and the Jewish law of the Old Covenant are incapable of allowing man in his natural faculties to rise above the fall of mankind and the temptations of Satan.
Because of the infinite love and mercy of God, Jesus Christ willingly paid for our sins by his suffering, crucifixion, and resurrection and thus merited the redemption of humanity. This means that provided humans cooperate by act of free will with God’s grace, a person can be justified by the grace of God and become a new creature in Christ. Justification of the soul is a work of grace by the Holy Spirit. With this in mind, we can define justification as the transformation of the soul from the state of original sin to that of grace and divine sonship through Jesus Christ.
One day, after celebrating Mass, the aged Pope Leo XIII was in conference with the Cardinals when suddenly he sank to the floor in a deep swoon. Physicians who hastened to his side could find no trace of his pulse and feared that he had expired. However, after a short interval the Holy Father regained consciousness and exclaimed with great emotion: “Oh, what a horrible picture I have been permitted to see!”
He had been shown a vision of evil spirits who had been released from Hell and their efforts to destroy the Church. But in the midst of the horror the archangel St. Michael appeared and cast Satan and his legions into the abyss of hell. Soon afterwards Pope Leo XIII composed the following prayer to Saint Michael, which is the original version:
Original – Prayer to St. Michael
“O Glorious Prince of the heavenly host, St. Michael the Archangel, defend us in the battle and in the terrible warfare that we are waging against the principalities and powers, against the rulers of this world of darkness, against the evil spirits. Come to the aid of man, whom Almighty God created immortal, made in His own image and likeness, and redeemed at a great price from the tyranny of Satan.
“Fight this day the battle of the Lord, together with the holy angels, as already thou hast fought the leader of the proud angels, Lucifer, and his apostate host, who were powerless to resist thee, nor was there place for them any longer in Heaven. That cruel, ancient serpent, who is called the devil or Satan who seduces the whole world, was cast into the abyss with his angels. Behold, this primeval enemy and slayer of men has taken courage. Transformed into an angel of light, he wanders about with all the multitude of wicked spirits, invading the earth in order to blot out the name of God and of His Christ, to seize upon, slay and cast into eternal perdition souls destined for the crown of eternal glory. This wicked dragon pours out, as a most impure flood, the venom of his malice on men of depraved mind and corrupt heart, the spirit of lying, of impiety, of blasphemy, and the pestilent breath of impurity, and of every vice and iniquity.
“These most crafty enemies have filled and inebriated with gall and bitterness the Church, the spouse of the immaculate Lamb, and have laid impious hands on her most sacred possessions. In the Holy Place itself, where the See of Holy Peter and the Chair of Truth has been set up as the light of the world, they have raised the throne of their abominable impiety, with the iniquitous design that when the Pastor has been struck, the sheep may be.
“Arise then, O invincible Prince, bring help against the attacks of the lost spirits to the people of God, and give them the victory. They venerate thee as their protector and patron; in thee holy Church glories as her defense against the malicious power of hell; to thee has God entrusted the souls of men to be established in heavenly beatitude. Oh, pray to the God of peace that He may put Satan under our feet, so far conquered that he may no longer be able to hold men in captivity and harm the Church. Offer our prayers in the sight of the Most High, so that they may quickly find mercy in the sight of the Lord; and vanquishing the dragon, the ancient serpent, who is the devil and Satan, do thou again make him captive in the abyss, that he may no longer seduce the nations. Amen.
V. Behold the Cross of the Lord; be scattered ye hostile powers.
R. The Lion of the tribe of Judah has conquered, the root of David.
V. Let Thy mercies be upon us, O Lord.
R. As we have hoped in Thee.
V. O Lord, hear my prayer.
R. And let my cry come unto Thee.
Let us pray.
O God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, we call upon Thy holy Name, and as supplicants, we implore Thy clemency, that by the intercession of Mary, ever Virgin Immaculate and our Mother, and of the glorious St. Michael the Archangel, Thou wouldst deign to help us against Satan and all the other unclean spirits who wander about the world for the injury of the human race and the ruin of souls. Amen.”
Short Prayer to St. Michael the Archangel
The well-known short version of this prayer follows in English and Latin. The Pope ordered this prayer to be recited daily after Low Mass in all the churches throughout the Catholic world. However this practice was almost completely swept away in the 1960s by liturgical changes made in the wake of Vatican Council II.
Saint Michael the Archangel, defend us in battle, be our protection against the malice and snares of the devil. May God rebuke him we humbly pray; and do thou, O Prince of the Heavenly host, by the power of God, thrust into hell Satan and all evil spirits who wander through the world for the ruin of souls. Amen.
Most of us in Western countries lead very insular lives. We understand, on an intellectual level, that not everyone has the same standard of living or access to technology that we do, but fail to really comprehend what that means. We also may fail to understand exactly how other people, other societies and cultures, interact with the technology that is available to them. This insulated perspective can have numerous repercussions for people who live and breathe technology, specifically for those people who work in the Information Technology field.
Information Technology is no longer a local field of employment or study. It is almost impossible to work at any level within the IT field and not have a global presence to some degree. And it is becoming more and more vital that we learn to interact as global citizens since the World Wide Web, and the technologies that are associated with it, are breaking boundaries and national borders faster than anything we have ever dreamed of in the past.
Digital Citizenship is a way of looking at our lives – specifically at that point where information technology begins to define our place in the world. Digital citizenship is all about how to be appropriate, responsible, and ethical, within the boundaries of cyberspace. Digital citizenship is the new Emily Post for the Matrix and while it may sound funny, it is absolutely crucial to today’s marketplace and to the economic wellbeing of our companies and countries.
We need to understand that our presence online isn’t the same as the neighborhood presence of a local store. The grocery store on the corner is marketing to a very specific demographic, the people who live within a few miles. No one else in world probably even knows about that store. But build a website, develop an ecommerce shop, and suddenly you are available to everyone everywhere, suddenly you are a global citizen with a digital presence. Now people in England, Oman, or Thailand, can shop your store. You are no longer simply selling to a small community, you are selling to every community. What exactly does this mean for us and what are the implications of digital citizenship?
First, we have to learn to communicate on a global level, and we have to realize that communication is not about talking, it is about sharing ideas. Unfortunately, at this time, I am limited to English so I cannot carry a conversation with anyone unless they happen to speak my language. But that does not stop me from communicating. We can share ideas through the magic of information technology, through the digital sharing of pictures and graphics, through the use of online translators and with the help of a myriad of people who are also online and willing to help facilitate communication. But we have to remember that communication is not occurring between two computers, or two smart phones, but that these are just the devices that are allowing two human beings to interact at a distance. We need to treat our digital communication as if it were a face to face meeting.
Which leads to the discussion of etiquette. You simply cannot treat people differently online, than you would in person. As we spend more and more time immersed in a digital world, it seems as if people are developing these digital personas, masks that they hide behind, and then acting out in the most inappropriate ways. Our failure to grasp the importance of treating other people fairly, with respect, is probably the single biggest obstacle that we face as citizens of a digital world. Perhaps we really do need an Emily Post for the Matrix. And not just for our words, but we need to be aware of our virtual actions, the way we present ourselves, the images we post online.
Digital commerce is rapidly becoming the norm for shopping. It is so much more convenient, with better prices and more selection, than driving up the street to a small store and being forced to choose from their limited stock. But commerce online can be inhibited by a failure to properly present what you are selling. If you are unable to communicate the precise nature of what you offer, how do you expect anyone to purchase it? And how many times have we had to deal with a lack of communication between buyer and seller or with rude help desks that simply don’t seem interested in your lack of ability to understand what a particular website is unsuccessfully attempting to sell. We need to look at the bigger picture and not limit ourselves to a local mindset. Even if you are selling to a particular demographic or region, the ability to communicate your wares, your ideas, your skills, to a global audience will better present your product to a local audience.
We tend to think that we have a right to do whatever we like when we are online as if the Internet were some giant free-for-all. But our rights have to be tempered with responsibility. Our rights should never allow us to run roughshod over other people, nor allow us to bully or denigrate them. Speak freely certainly, but don’t yell fire in a crowded theater.
If we can learn to be better digital citizens in a World Wide ‘Globe’ we can increase our ability to collaborate with others. We can improve marketplaces and honest competitiveness between businesses. We can help others in ways and to degrees never before possible. We can change the world for the better.